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Northern Samar Province occupies the entire northern portion of Samar Island on the eastern edge of the Philippines archipelago. It is bounded on the north by the San Bernardino Strait, on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the west by the Samar Sea, and on the south by the province of Samar. The province has extensive lowland areas along the coast and up to the valleys of the Catarman, Catubig, and Palapag rivers. The remaining portion has rugged terrain that becomes rolling and moutainous towards the interior.

The San Bernardino Strait was along the route of the Spanish galleons that plied between Manila and Acapulco during Spanish times. A royal port was established in Palapag, as a refuge for galleons during storms.

On June 19, 1965, the provinces of Northern Samar, Eastern Samar and Western Samar were created out of Samar Island.

Batanes Province