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Negros Occidental occupies the northern and western parts of Negros Island, the fourth largest island in the Philippines. The province is bounded by the Visayan Sea on the north, Tanon Strait and Negros Oriental on the east, Guimaras Strait on the northwest, Panay Gulf on the southwest and Sulu Sea on the south.
The northern and western parts are largely level plains and gently-rolling slopes. The remaining portion consists of mountain ranges of varied elevations. Mt. Canlaon is the highest peak in the Visayas. Other major mountains are Mt. Madalagan and Mt. Silay. The coastline is more irregular than that of Negros Oriental.
The first capital of the province was Ilog in 1743, and was later transferred to Himamaylan. Bacolod became the province’s capital in 1849. Negros Occidental officially became a province on March 10, 1917. In 1986, the province was divided into two, with the northern part declared as the province of Negros del Norte. Later that year, however, the Supreme Court declared the creation unconstitutional and eventually made Negros Occidental whole again.

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